2020年1月,一年一度的春运大幕开启,中美签署第一阶段经贸协议,习近平主席出访缅甸,续写千年胞波情谊的崭新篇章,教育部推出“强基计划”,长江流域分阶段禁渔开始实施,武汉等城市出现新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎,美国取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定,国务院发布新版限塑令。

只争朝夕,不负韶华 seize the day and live it to the fullest

President Xi Jinping on Tuesday delivered a New Year speech in Beijing to ring in 2020, pledging to achieve the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects in the \"milestone\" year.新年前夕,国家主席习近平发表了2020年新年贺词。贺词指出,2020年是具有里程碑意义的一年。我们将全面建成小康社会,实现第一个百年奋斗目标。

【重要讲话】

2020年也是脱贫攻坚决战决胜之年。冲锋号已经吹响。我们要万众一心加油干,越是艰险越向前,把短板补得再扎实一些,把基础打得再牢靠一些,坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战,如期实现现行标准下农村贫困人口全部脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽。

2020 will also be a year of decisive victory for the elimination of poverty. The bugle has sounded. United as one, we shall work harder. The greater the difficulties are, the further we advance, strengthening our weak links even more and laying a more solid foundation to win the hard battle against poverty with determination, to lift all impoverished rural residents and counties out of poverty by current standards as scheduled.

——2019年12月31日,习近平发表2020年新年贺词

让我们只争朝夕,不负韶华,共同迎接2020年的到来。

Let's seize the day and live it to the fullest, and greet the arrival of the year 2020 together.

——2019年12月31日,习近平发表2020年新年贺词

长江禁渔 fishing ban in the Yangtze River basin

Starting from this year, the fishing ban will be observed in 332 conservation areas in the Yangtze River basin, which will also be expanded to all natural waterways of the river and its major tributaries from no later than Jan 1, 2021.2020年起,长江流域332个保护区全面禁止生产性捕捞;最迟自2021年1月1日零时起,禁渔范围将扩大至所有长江干流和重要支流天然水域。

【知识点】

在水文学上,支流(tributary)指汇入另一条河流(或其他水体)而不直接入海的河流。支流所汇入的河流称为干流或主流(mainstream),两河或多河交汇之处称为合流或合流处(confluence)。与支流相反的情况称为分流(distributary)。

长江干流(the Yangtze River mainstream)是指青海省曲麻莱县以下至长江河口的长江干流江段;重要支流(major tributaries)是指岷江、沱江、赤水河、嘉陵江、乌江、汉江等重要通江河流在甘肃、陕西、云南、贵州、四川、重庆、湖北境内的干流江段,大渡河在青海和四川境内的干流河段,以及各省份确定的其他重要支流。

Fishing will also be prohibited on natural waterways of large lakes connected to the Yangtze such as the Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake for 10 years starting from no later than Jan 1, 2021.

对鄱阳湖、洞庭湖等大型通江湖泊天然水域,最迟自2021年1月1日零时起实行暂定为期10年的常年禁捕。

禁捕是有效缓解长江生物资源衰退和生物多样性下降危机的关键之举。

The Yangtze River has long been suffering from human activities such as overfishing, pollution and damming.长江长期以来受拦河筑坝、水域污染、过度捕捞等人类活动的影响。

Biological deterioration has reduced fishing activities along the Yangtze as well, which now only produces 0.32 percent of China's total freshwater aquatic products. In recent years, annual catch from the Yangtze has fallen to less than 100,000 tonnes from more than 420,000 tonnes in the 1950s.生态破坏也使得渔业生产受到严重影响。20世纪50年代,年长江流域天然捕捞量超过42万吨,近年来长江每年的捕捞量也不足10万吨,约占全国淡水水产品总量的0.32%。

多方合力保障28万渔民生计

The 10-year ban is estimated to affect more than 113,000 fishing boats and nearly 280,000 fishermen in 10 provincial regions along the river. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has promised to provide social security services, financial support and vocational trainings for fishermen who have to find new ways of living.根据测算,长江流域重点水域禁捕共涉及沿江10个省市的合法持证渔船11.3万多艘、渔民近28万人。农业农村部承诺统筹协调落实退捕渔民过渡期生活补助、社会保障、职业技能培训等政策。

禁捕后仍要做大量工作以确保生态修复

Efforts will also be made to protect rare species and enhance monitoring over aquatic life in the Yangtze, and to improve protection and management strategies in accordance with biological resource restoration progress.针对珍稀物种采取保护措施;构建长江水生生物调查监测平台;根据渔业资源恢复情况,改进保护管理政策。

校园贷 campus loans

College students who fall into debt as a result of using peer-to-peer lending platforms cannot be included in a list of dishonest debtors, China's top court said on Thursday.最高法1月2日表示,在校大学生因为使用网贷平台而欠债的不应被列为失信被执行人。

【知识点】

校园贷(campus loans)始于2014年,到2015年迎来爆发式增长,但因随后爆发的“裸贷(loans secured against nude photos)、收费混乱(illegal charges)、暴力催收(forcible debt collection)”等负面事件备受舆论质疑。2017年,银监会、教育部、人社部、互联网金融委员会等发布通知,禁止违规机构向大学生提供校园贷服务。

失信被执行人(defaulter),是指被执行人具有履行能力而不履行生效法律文书确定的义务,俗称“老赖”。最高人民法院先后于2013年建立了网上的“老赖”黑名单系统(online blacklist of defaulters)。

The blacklist publishes personal details, including names and identity card numbers, of individuals and legal representatives of companies who refused to comply with court orders to shame them into compliance.该黑名单对失信被执行人(个人及公司法人)的姓名、身份证号等信息进行公示,希望以此方式使他们执行法院判决。

2014年底,最高法正式开通“总对总”网络查控系统(information monitoring network),与银行以及公安部、交通部、工商总局、人民银行等单位实现联网,可以查询到被执行人全国范围内的存款、车辆、证券、网络资金等14类16项信息,并对被执行人进行消费限制。

此次最高法发布的意见明确,全日制在校生因“校园贷”纠纷成为被执行人的,一般不得对其采取纳入失信名单或限制消费措施。

北京京师律师事务所的律师许浩表示,

Some students are still shouldering an economic and credit burden in debt disputes, even though our country prohibited online platforms from lending money to students three years ago. Students, as the debtors, still need to repay the debts in line with court rulings and valid contracts.虽然我们国家3年前就禁止网贷平台提供校园贷了,但是部分学生依然承担着债务纠纷导致的经济和信用负担。学生作为债务人仍然需要按照法庭判决和有效合同偿还债务。

Given that many students have little savings and the borrowing records will influence their future, such as in employment, further studies, or bank loans, the top court's decision on removing them from the dishonest list, I think, is timely, humane and necessary.鉴于学生没有什么储蓄,而这种借款记录可能会对他们未来的就业、深造以及银行贷款申请产生影响,最高法决定不将学生列入失信名单的决定很及时,人性化,也很必要。

最高法还规定了几类解除或暂时解除限制消费措施的情形。

The guideline permits courts to temporarily lift travel restrictions when defaulters have to take a train or fly home for medical treatment or when family members fall ill or die.对被限制消费的个人,因其本人患病或近亲属患病或死亡等情形,人民法院应当暂时解除限制其乘坐飞机、高铁措施。

地区生产总值统一核算 unified regional calculation of gross domestic product

China will introduce unified regional calculation of gross domestic product (GDP) to enhance the accuracy of the results, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said Sunday.国家统计局1月5日表示,我国将实施地区生产总值统一核算,以提升核算结果的精确性。

The new accounting system will take effect while calculating the annual regional GDP of 2019, said Ning Jizhe, head of the NBS.国家统计局局长宁吉喆说,统一核算改革将从2019年年度地区生产总值核算开始。

【知识点】

国内生产总值(Gross Domestic Product,简称GDP)是指在一定时期内(一个季度或一年),一个国家或地区的经济中所生产出的全部最终产品和劳务的价值(the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a specific time period),常被公认为衡量国家经济状况的最佳指标。

自1985年我国建立生产总值核算制度以来,一直采取分级核算制度(separate accounting system),即国家统计局核算国内生产总值(overall GDP calculation),各省区市统计局核算本地区生产总值。

改革后,地区生产总值将由各省区市统计局负责核算改革为国家统计局统一组织、领导和实施(lead the unified accounting of regional GDP by conducting unified accounting procedures),各省区市统计局共同参与核算。改革后,各地区生产总值数据将由国家统计局统一部署公布或授权各地区统计局公布本地区数据。

拖欠工资 wage arrears

国务院总理李克强日前签署国务院令,公布《保障农民工工资支付条例》(以下简称《条例》),自2020年5月1日起施行。

To ensure that rural migrant workers get their wages on time and in full, the regulation has clauses on clarifying the responsibilities of employers and related government departments, detailing rules for special areas and strengthening supervision.为了保障农民工按时足额获得工资,《条例》从明确用人单位以及相关政府部门的职责,细化重点领域治理措施,以及强化监管手段等方面做出了明确规定。

【词汇讲解】

“拖欠工资”可以用名词短语wage arrears表示,arrear读作[ə'rɪə],表示“欠款”,比如,某人已经欠了6个月的房租就可以说:someone is six weeks in arrear with his rent. 此外,“欠薪”还可以用动词短语withhold salary或者delay salary来表示。发工资的时候,有些单位还会出现无理克扣工资(unreasonable deductions from paychecks)的现象,更不用说保证发放加班费(overtime pay)了。

“讨薪”可以用demand unpaid salary来表示,如果讨薪成功,单位“补发工资”就可以用pay backdated salary表示。这里的backdated就是表示某个政策或举措从之前较早的时间开始计算。比如,6月份发出涨工资的决定,但是从1月开始算的,所以会从1月开始补发。这种情况就可以说:The increase in pay agreed in June will be backdated to January.

The regulation said wages for rural migrant workers should be paid with bank transfers or cash, not in other forms such as physical goods or securities.

《条例》明确以银行转账或者现金形式支付农民工工资,不得以实物或者有价证券等其他形式替代。

Government-funded projects must be given sufficient funding and should not be funded in advance by contractors, and government officials in regions with serious wage arrears will be punished.《条例》规定政府投资项目所需资金必须落实到位,不得由施工单位垫资建设,对拖欠农民工工资的地方部门负责人,情节严重的给予处分。

The regulation also ordered government departments to beef up regulation, including setting up credit archives for employers and formulating a unified punishment system for those who default on migrant workers' wages.《条例》要求政府部门强化监管,建立用人单位劳动保障守法诚信档案和拖欠农民工工资失信联合惩戒制度。

党的先进性和纯洁性 the Party's advanced nature and purity

Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee, on Wednesday called for continued efforts to ensure that the whole Party remains true to its original aspiration and keeps its mission firmly in mind. Xi, also Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, made the remarks at a meeting summarizing a campaign themed \"staying true to our founding mission.\"“不忘初心、牢记使命”主题教育总结大会1月8日召开。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平出席会议并发表重要讲话。习近平强调,要持续推动全党不忘初心牢记使命。

\"We must resolutely remove whatever weakens the Party's advanced nature and undermines the Party's purity, and rid ourselves of any tumor that erodes the Party's health,\" said Xi, adding that the Party should resolutely guard against all dangers of running counter to the original aspiration and the mission or shaking the foundation of the Party.

他强调,坚决清除一切弱化党的先进性、损害党的纯洁性的因素,坚决割除一切滋生在党的肌体上的毒瘤,坚决防范一切违背初心和使命、动摇党的根基的危险。

【重要讲话】

要始终保持奋发有为的进取精神,永葆党的先进性和纯洁性,答好新时代的答卷。

The CPC members should always maintain the enterprising spirit, ensure the Party's purity and advanced nature, and pass the test of the new era.

——2019年9月12日,习近平视察中共中央北京香山革命纪念地时表示

全党要更加自觉地坚定党性原则,勇于直面问题,敢于刮骨疗毒,消除一切损害党的先进性和纯洁性的因素,清除一切侵蚀党的健康肌体的病毒,不断增强党的政治领导力、思想引领力、群众组织力、社会号召力,确保我们党永葆旺盛生命力和强大战斗力。

Every Party member must be more actively involved in enhancing Party consciousness, and demonstrate commitment to Party principles. We must have the courage to face problems squarely, be braced for the pain, act to remove whatever undermines the Party’s purity and advanced nature, and rid ourselves of any virus that erodes the Party’s health. We must keep on strengthening the Party’s ability to lead politically, to guide through theory, to organize the people, and to inspire society, thus ensuring that the Party’s great vitality and strong ability are forever maintained.

——2017年10月18日,习近平在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告

春运 Spring Festival travel rush

1月10日,2020年春运(the Spring Festival travel rush)正式开启。今年春运,预计全国旅客发送量将达到约30亿人次。

From Jan 10 to Feb 18, the total number of trips is likely to hit 3 billion, slightly up from the travel rush last year, with an 8-percent growth in train trips, 8.4-percent increase in air trips and 9.6-percent hike in waterway trips, according to a forecast from the National Development and Reform Commission.国家发改委表示,今年春运从1月10日持续至2月18日,预计全国旅客发送量将达到约30亿人次,铁路旅客同比增长8%,民航增长8.4%,水路旅客增长9.6%。

Due to the continued expansion in high-speed railway operational length, the number of road trips is expected to decline to 2.43 billion.由于高铁运营里程不断增加,今年的陆路旅客量预计将下降至24.3亿人次。

今年的春运,我们迎来了电子客票、反向春运优惠等一系列新变化,一起来看一看吧!

高铁实行电子客票

电子客票的运用是今年春运的一大亮点,更多旅客将不再需要换取纸质车票,直接通过刷手机或身份证进站乘车。

All high-speed railway stations will allow passengers to use electronic tickets. According to China State Railway Co, as of Thursday, passengers can check in without paper tickets at 1,020 railway stations across the country.所有高铁车站均允许旅客使用电子客票。国铁集团表示,截至1月10日,全国共有1020个火车站实现电子客票检票进站。

反向春运有优惠

近几年,“反向春运(reverse Spring Festival travel)”的热度持续提升,更多的年轻人将老家的父母接来自己工作的城市过年。

Rail authorities are offering discount tickets to encourage more passengers to travel against the flow during the travel rush, easing transportation pressure.铁路部门提供折扣票价,鼓励旅客在春节期间“反向”出行,缓解交通压力。

北京大兴国际机场迎首个春运

2019年9月正式投运的大兴国际机场也即将迎来首个春运的考验。

The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) said on Thursday that the airport, which started operation in late September last year, will see 1.9 million travelers during the 40-day festival rush, and the daily number of flights could hit 312, up 15 percent from normal.民航总局1月10日表示,去年9月正式投运的大兴国际机场在为期40天的春运期间将迎来旅客190万人次,每日航班数将达到312个,比平日增加15%。

省界收费站全部取消

从2020年1月1日零时起,全国29个联网省份的487个省界收费站(toll stations at provincial boundaries of national expressways)全部取消。

Use of electronic toll-collection devices will improve traffic efficiency at toll gates.电子收费设备的使用将提升收费站的通行效率。

儿童乘车优惠可看年龄

2020年1月1日起施行的《关于深化道路运输价格改革的意见》中明确,符合条件的儿童乘坐客运班车享受免费乘车或者客票半价优待。在儿童身高标准基础上,增加以年龄为依据的儿童票、免票划分标准。

具体条件为:每一成人旅客可携带1名6周岁(含6周岁)以下或者身高1.2米(含1.2米)以下、且不单独占用座位的儿童免费乘车(children who are under 6 years old and don't need separate seats can take public transport for free),需单独占用座位或者超过1名时超过的人数执行客票半价优待,并提供座位;6~14周岁或者身高为1.2~1.5米的儿童乘车执行客票半价优待(eligible for half-price policy),并提供座位。

国家最高科学技术奖 the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award

President Xi Jinping presented the State Preeminent Science and Technology Award, China’s top scientific honor, to nuclear submarine designer Huang Xuhua and atmospheric physicist Zeng Qingcun at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Friday.1月10日,国家主席习近平在人民大会堂向核潜艇设计师黄旭华和大气物理学家曾庆存颁发国家最高科学技术奖。

【重要讲话】

我国广大科技工作者要把握大势、抢占先机,直面问题、迎难而上,瞄准世界科技前沿,引领科技发展方向,肩负起历史赋予的重任,勇做新时代科技创新的排头兵,努力建设世界科技强国。

Science and technology personnel should grasp the main trends, seize opportunities, face problems squarely, and rise to challenges. They should aim for the frontiers of science and technology, lead the direction of its development, shoulder the heavy responsibilities bestowed by history, and be vanguards in innovation in the new era, in order to build China into a powerhouse of science and technology.

——2018年5月28日,习近平出席中国科学院第十九次院士大会、中国工程院第十四次院士大会并发表重要讲话

家用电器安全使用年限 standard life spans for home appliances

China unveiled its first set of standard life spans for home appliances on Friday to fend off safety risks and promote energy consciousness.1月10日,我国发布了首套家用电器安全使用年限,以消除安全隐患,提高人们的节能意识。

《家用电器安全使用年限》系列标准从安全使用年限要求(standard life span)、正常使用条件(standard operating conditions)和消费提醒信息(alert notification)三方面进行规范。

家用电冰箱(refrigerators)&葡萄酒柜(wine cabinets)、房间空调器(air conditioners)的安全使用年限为10年,家用洗衣机(washing machines)&干衣机(dryers)、吸油烟机(range hoods)、家用燃气灶(gas cookers)的安全使用年限为8年。

The standard life span of air conditioners starts from date of production, and that of other home appliances from date of sale.

空调安全使用年限从生产日期计起,其余从销售日期计起。

为什么要设定安全使用年限?

家电“超期服役”时,不仅能耗显著提升,而且存在较大安全隐患。

The use of electrical home appliances past life expectancy will increase energy consumption and safety risks.使用超过安全使用年限的家电会增加能耗以及安全风险。

An expected 160 million units of electrical home appliances will expire in 2020.据估算,仅2020年就将有1.6亿台家电到期。

国家发展改革委产业司巡视员王东说,

The move will help raise consumers' awareness for safety and energy conservation, and put more new models on the market as well.此举不但能帮助提升消费者的安全意识和节能意识,同时还有利于家电新产品进入市场。

汇率操纵国 currency manipulator

1月13日,美国财政部公布半年度汇率政策报告,取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定。

In its semiannual Report on Macroeconomic and Foreign Exchange Policies of Major Trading Partners of the United States, the Treasury Department said no major US trading partner at this time met the relevant legislative criteria for currency manipulation.美国财政部发布的《主要贸易伙伴的宏观经济和外汇政策》半年报告指出,目前,美国主要的贸易伙伴中,无一符合汇率操纵国法定标准。

【知识点】

根据美国对“汇率操纵国(currency manipulator)”最新的认定标准,当一国在过去四个季度满足以下三个标准时会被认定为“汇率操纵国”:1.对美国贸易顺差超过200亿美元(a bilateral trade surplus of $20 billion or more with the US);2.经常账户顺差占GDP比重超过2%(a current account surplus of 2 percent or more of its gross domestic product);3.单边汇率干预持续时长超过6个月(one-sided intervention in foreign exchange markets for more than 6 months)。

如果一个经济体满足三个标准,则被认定为“汇率操纵国”;如果只满足两个标准,会被列入观察名单(monitoring list);如果只满足第一个标准,但该经济体对美国的总体贸易逆差贡献较大,也可能被列入观察名单。

美国财政部去年8月宣布将中国列为“汇率操纵国”,遭到中方、经济学界和权威国际机构的普遍反对。

Mark Sobel, US chairman of the Official Monetary and Financial Institutions Forum, an independent think tank, said on Twitter that this is \"good news,\" calling the designation \"blatant\" and \"errant\" political act. \"China shouldn't have been designated to start with,\" said Sobel, who was served as deputy assistant secretary at the US Treasury Department. He noted China's current account surplus is small as a share of GDP, and there is \"scant intervention.\"前美国财政部官员、官方货币与金融机构论坛主席马克·索贝尔在推特上表示,美国财政部此举是“好消息”,中国从一开始就不应被认定为“汇率操纵国”,中国经常账户顺差占国内生产总值比重较小,几乎不构成干涉,美国政府此前的认定是“错误的政治行为”。

强基计划 plan for strengthening basic academic disciplines

China has moved to step up the cultivation of innovative talent in certain basic academic disciplines such as mathematics and physics by launching a pilot enrollment scheme at more than 30 select universities, including Peking and Tsinghua, according to a guideline unveiled by the Ministry of Education Wednesday.为了加强数学、物理等基础学科创新人才的培养,教育部1月15日发出通知,将在包括北京大学、清华大学在内的30多所选定高校开展招生试点。

【知识点】

根据教育部《关于在部分高校开展基础学科招生改革试点工作的意见》(也称“强基计划”plan for strengthening basic academic disciplines),这一计划主要选拔有志于服务国家重大战略需求且综合素质优秀或基础学科拔尖的学生(students who are interested in serving the country's major strategic needs and at the same time have excellent comprehensive qualities or excel in basic discipline studies)。由有关高校结合自身办学特色,重点在数学(mathematics)、物理(physics)、化学(chemistry)、生物(biology)及历史(history)、哲学(philosophy)、古文字学(study of ancient characters)等相关专业招生。

教育部将遴选部分高校开展这一试点。起步阶段,遴选部分“一流大学”建设高校开展试点。

招生办法

在招生选拔模式上,将探索建立基于统一高考的多维度考核评价学生的招生模式。

Students will be able to sign up for the plan in April. After they take the national college entrance exam (or gaokao) in early June, the 36 universities will release the list of students qualifying for the plan based on their gaokao scores. The ministry said they should then give those students written and physical tests and interviews before releasing final enrollment lists by July 5.学生可在4月份报名“强基计划”;6月初高考结束后,参与该计划的36所高校将根据高考成绩确定入围学生名单;之后,高校组织对入围学生进行笔试、口试及体检等考核,并在7月5日前公布录取名单。

培养模式

高校对通过“强基计划”录取的学生单独制定培养方案。

Students admitted through the plan will be put in small, independent classes, with the best teaching resources and learning environment. Top performers will be given preferential treatment in pursuing postgraduate studies, government sponsored overseas study and scholarships, it said.通过“强基计划”录取的学生进行独立小班教学,配备优质教学资源及学习环境。对学业优秀的学生,高校可在免试推荐研究生、公派留学、奖学金等方面予以优先安排。

Students under the plan are not supposed to transfer to majors in other academic disciplines.通过“强基计划”录取的学生入校后原则上不得转到相关学科之外的专业就读。

2020年起,不再组织开展高校自主招生(independent enrollment)工作。

中美第一阶段经贸协议 China-US phase-one economic and trade agreement

当地时间1月15日,美国总统特朗普在白宫椭圆形办公室会见中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理、中美全面经济对话中方牵头人刘鹤,双方共同出席中美第一阶段经贸协议签署仪式。

Speaking at the signing ceremony, Liu first conveyed a message of Chinese President Xi Jinping to Trump.刘鹤首先转达习近平主席致特朗普总统的口信。

The conclusion of the phase-one economic and trade agreement is good for China, for the United States and for the whole world, Xi said in the message read out by the vice premier.

习近平在口信中指出,中美达成第一阶段经贸协议,有利于中美两国,有利于世界。

\"It also shows that our two countries have the ability to act on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and work through dialogue and consultation to properly handle and effectively resolve relevant issues,\" read the message.

这也说明,中美双方完全可以在平等和相互尊重的基础上,通过对话磋商找到有关问题的妥善处理和有效解决办法。

In the next step, the two sides need to implement the agreement in real earnest and optimize its positive impact, so as to make even greater progress in China-U.S. trade and economic cooperation, the Chinese president said.

下一步,双方要把协议落到实处,发挥积极效应,推动中美经贸合作取得更大进展。

To maintain healthy and steady growth of China-U.S. relations serves the interest of both countries and requires joint efforts from both sides, Xi said.

保持中美关系健康稳定发展,符合双方利益,需要双方共同作出努力。

In that spirit, Xi voiced hope that the U.S. side will treat fairly Chinese companies and their regular economic, trade and investment activities, and give support to the collaboration between enterprises, research institutes, and schools and colleges of the two countries, as it will help enhance mutual trust and cooperation between the two sides.

本着这一精神,希望美方公平对待中国企业正常经贸和投资活动,支持两国企业、科研机构、学校开展合作,促进中美互信与合作。

\"China is prepared to work with the United States in that direction. And I will stay in close touch with you personally,\" Xi said. \"I believe that under our guidance, China-U.S. relations will deliver more results and bring greater benefits to our peoples in the year ahead.\"

中方愿与美方相向而行。我愿与你保持密切联系,相信在我们共同引领下,中美关系在新的一年能够给两国人民带来更多利益和实惠。

付费测试 paywall trial

1月15日,腾讯微信团队宣布,微信正灰度测试订阅号付费能力,符合条件的运营者可以前往公众平台开通付费功能。

Some official accounts will be able to charge readers for original content, WeChat said. The content creators can price articles from 1 yuan to 208 yuan, and WeChat will not take a cut on the revenues during the trial period.微信团队表示,部分公众平台可以对原创稿件开通付费功能,运营者可在1-208元之间的价格档位选择合适的定价,测试期间微信方面不会从中分成。

【知识点】

目前,不少国外新闻网站都有收费墙(paywall)阅读系统。

There are both \"hard\" and \"soft\" paywalls in use. \"Hard\" paywalls allow minimal to no access to content without subscription, while \"soft\" paywalls allow more flexibility in what users can view without subscribing, such as selective free content and/or a limited number of articles per month, or the sampling of several pages of a book or paragraphs of an article. (Source: Wikipedia)在具体使用中有“硬”收费墙和“软”收费墙两种。“硬”收费墙模式下,非订阅用户只能看到最少量的网页内容,或甚至无法看到网页内容;而“软”收费墙模式对用户可见内容的限制则更加灵活,比如,每月允许用户查看精选的一些免费内容或免费查看一定数量的文章,或者允许读者查看某本书的几页内容或某篇文章的几段内容。

微信此次测试的付费功能也类似于“收费墙”功能。

WeChat bloggers, whose official accounts have been in operation for more than three months and who have published at least three original pieces of content without violations of community rules for three months, are eligible for paywall trial.注册超过3个月、近3个月内无严重违规记录、已发表至少3篇原创文章的订阅号可以开通付费功能。

运营者可对原创文章的部分或全部内容设置收费(charge for the whole post or part of the post)。用户未付费前,可免费阅读前言和试读部分,留言只可查看。付费后才可以阅读全文,写留言(users can read the whole post and write comment after payment)。

付费文章仅付费用户可查看,其它用户无论从什么途径获得文章,都需要购买后才能阅读。目前,付费功能仅对单篇文章提供阅读付费能力(the paywall feature only applies to individual posts at present)。

Accounts run by media organizations, governments and companies will be excluded from the official trials.媒体和政府、企业帐号暂不支持测试付费阅读。

同时,付费文章暂时不支持使用赞赏功能(the reward function will be closed for paid content)。

看到这条新闻,网友们反应不一。有人表示,那我以后就不看了,还能少玩会儿手机。也有网友表示,支持知识付费。

千年胞波情谊 millennia-old pauk-phaw friendship

A signed article by President Xi Jinping titled \"Writing a New Chapter in Our Millennia-Old Pauk-Phaw Friendship\" was published Thursday on three Myanmese newspapers ahead of his state visit to this Southeast Asian country.1月16日,在对缅甸联邦共和国进行国事访问前夕,国家主席习近平在缅甸三家媒体同时发表题为《续写千年胞波情谊的崭新篇章》的署名文章。

Xi said it gives him great pleasure to pay a state visit to Myanmar at the invitation of Myanmar's President U Win Myint, and he looks forward to renewing pauk-phaw ties with Myanmar and discussing the future cooperation between the two countries during the visit, according to the article.习近平在文章中指出,很高兴应温敏总统邀请,对缅甸进行国事访问,期待通过这次访问,同缅甸朋友共叙“胞波”情谊,共话合作大计。

【知识点】

在缅语中,“胞波”意为一母同胞的兄弟。两国人民自古相亲相融,“胞波”情谊源远流长。早在公元前4世纪,我们的祖先就打通了贯穿川滇缅印的“金银大道”往来通商。中国盛唐时期,缅甸骠国王子率领舞乐队不远千里访问长安,著名诗人白居易挥毫写下千古绝唱《骠国乐》。缅甸在不同社会制度国家中第一个承认新中国。两国老一辈领导人身体力行,为中缅关系发展倾注了大量心血。

建交70年来,中缅倡导并践行和平共处五项原则,始终相互信任,相互尊重,相互支持,树立了大小国家平等相待、互利共赢、共同发展的典范,给两国人民带来了实实在在的利益。

【重要讲话】

中缅两国有句共同的谚语,“亲戚越走越亲,朋友越走越近”。站在建交70年的历史新起点上,我们愿同缅甸朋友携手努力,推动构建更为紧密的中缅命运共同体,续写千年“胞波”情谊的新乐章。

In China and Myanmar, people have similar sayings to the effect that more exchanges will bring families and friends closer together. In this 70th anniversary year, China-Myanmar relations stand at a new starting point. Let us work hand in hand to build an even closer China-Myanmar community with a shared future and write a new chapter for our millennia-old pauk-phaw friendship.

——2020年1月16日,习近平在缅甸《缅甸之光》、《镜报》、《缅甸环球新光报》同时发表题为《续写千年胞波情谊的崭新篇章》的署名文章

限塑令 plastics ban

《关于进一步加强塑料污染治理的意见》1月19日发布。意见明确,到2020年,率先在部分地区、部分领域禁止、限制部分塑料制品的生产、销售和使用。

The document has set step-by-step timelines to reduce the use of single-use, non-degradable plastics and parcel packaging in the next five years .意见列出了未来五年内分步骤减少一次性或不可降解塑料制品以及塑料包装的时间安排。

到2022年,一次性塑料制品消费量明显减少(consumption of single-use plastic products will be significantly reduced),替代产品(substitute products)得到推广,塑料废弃物资源化能源化利用比例大幅提升;在塑料污染问题突出领域和电商、快递、外卖等新兴领域,形成一批可复制、可推广的塑料减量和绿色物流模式。

The use of nondegradable plastic bags, for example, is expected to vanish in some major consuming sectors, including shopping malls, supermarkets and restaurant takeout services, first in metropolises by the end of this year and then in all major Chinese cities and all urban areas in coastal regions by the end of 2022.到2020年底,大型城市的商场、超市、以及餐饮打包外卖服务等,禁止使用不可降解塑料袋;到2022年底,实施范围扩大至全部地级以上城市建成区和沿海地区县城建成区。

Non-degradable single-use plastic straws will be banned by the end of 2020, while non-degradable single-use plastic tableware will be banned from dining-in in cities. By the end of 2022, the ban on plastic tableware will be extended to dining-in in counties.到2020年底,全国范围餐饮行业禁止使用不可降解一次性塑料吸管;城市餐饮堂食服务,禁止使用不可降解一次性塑料餐具。到2022年底,县城餐饮堂食服务,禁止使用不可降解一次性塑料餐具。

到2025年,塑料制品生产、流通、消费和回收处置等环节的管理制度基本建立(establish a complete plastics management system),多元共治体系基本形成,替代产品开发应用水平进一步提升(make progress in the development of substitute products),重点城市塑料垃圾填埋量大幅降低(significantly reduce the amount of plastic waste going to landfills),塑料污染得到有效控制(bring plastic pollution under effective control)。

By the end of 2025, the use of non-degradable single-use plastic tableware for take-out in cities should be cut by 30 percent, according to the document.到2025年,城市餐饮外卖领域不可降解一次性塑料餐具消耗强度下降30%。

Moreover, all hotels and guesthouses should stop using single-use plastic wares by 2025, while postal and express service outlets should cease using non-degradable plastic packaging, plastic tape and single-use plastic woven bags.到2025年底,宾馆、酒店等场所不再主动提供一次性塑料用品;全国范围邮政快递网点禁止使用不可降解的塑料包装袋、塑料胶带、一次性塑料编织袋等。

新型冠状病毒 novel coronavirus

近期,湖北省武汉市等多个地区发生新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情。

截至1月21日24时,国家卫健委收到国内13个省(区、市)累计报告新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎确诊病例440例(440 confirmed cases of pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus),报告死亡病例累计9例,新增3例,全部为湖北病例。

报告新增冠状病毒感染的肺炎确诊病例149例,收到日本通报确诊病例1例,泰国通报确诊病例3例,韩国通报确诊病例1例。

目前,追踪到的密切接触者2197人(2197 close contacts),已解除医学观察765人,尚有1394人正在接受医学观察(1394 under medical observation)。

【知识点】

冠状病毒(coronavirus)是一类主要引起呼吸道、肠道疾病(respiratory and intestinal diseases)的病原体。这类病毒颗粒的表面有许多规则排列的突起(a fringe of bulbous surface projections ),整个病毒颗粒就像一顶帝王的皇冠(royal crown),因此得名“冠状病毒”。冠状病毒除人类以外,还可感染猪、牛、猫、犬、貂、骆驼、蝙蝠、老鼠、刺猬等多种哺乳动物以及多种鸟类(mammals and birds)。

【关于新型冠状病毒】

2019-nCoV, as it's been labelled, is understood to be a new strain of coronavirus that has not previously been identified in humans.这种新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)此前未在人类身上发现过。

Coronaviruses are a broad family of viruses, but only six (the new one would make it seven) are known to infect people.冠状病毒是一个庞大的病毒家族,目前已知会感染人类的有六种(新发现的这种是第七种)。

Scientists believe an animal source is \"the most likely primary source\" but that some human-to-human transmission has occurred.科学家认为动物是“最有可能的初始感染源”,不过,也有一些人传人的病例。

Signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties.感染症状包括:呼吸道症状,发烧,咳嗽,呼吸短促,呼吸困难等。

(以上信息来源于世界卫生组织)

疫情发生后,党中央、国务院高度重视。

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平作出重要指示,湖北武汉市等地近期陆续发生新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情,必须引起高度重视,全力做好防控工作。

The prevention and control work is crucial at the moment due to the large passenger flows during the Spring Festival holiday, Xi said.

目前正值春节期间,人员大范围密集流动,做好疫情防控工作十分紧要。

The Party committees and governments at all levels must put people's safety and health as the top priority and take effective measures to curb the spread of the virus, he said.

各级党委和政府及有关部门要把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,采取切实有效措施,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头。

Xi ordered all-out efforts to treat patients, identify the causes of the virus infection and spread at an earlier date, strengthen monitoring and standardize treatment procedures.

要全力救治患者,尽快查明病毒感染和传播原因,加强病例监测,规范处置流程。

Xi spoke of the need for the timely release of information and the deepening of international cooperation.

要及时发布疫情信息,深化国际合作。

He also stressed the necessity of informing the public of relevant policies to safeguard social stability and ensure people have a peaceful and auspicious Chinese New Year festival.

要加强有关政策措施宣传解读工作,坚决维护社会大局稳定,确保人民群众度过一个安定祥和的新春佳节。

中共中央政治局常委、国务院总理李克强作出批示,

Li instructed related government departments and localities to improve response plans and spare no effort in prevention and control in this regard.各相关部门和地方要完善应对方案,全力以赴做好防控工作。

He also demanded better communication and coordination with the World Health Organization, related countries, as well as Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to join efforts to curb the spread of the virus.

做好与世界卫生组织、有关国家和港澳台地区的沟通协调,密切协作形成合力,坚决防止疫情扩散蔓延。

China has issued a temporary reimbursement policy to make sure patients with pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus will receive timely and thorough treatment.

我国出台临时报销政策以确保新型冠状病毒感染肺炎患者能得到及时、彻底的治疗。

【单词讲解】

Reimbursement指“偿付;报销”,常用的搭配是reimbursement for... expenses,比如: reimbursement for medical expenses(医疗费用报销),reimbursement fo travel expenses(出行费用报销)等。

国家医保局有关负责人表示,确诊新型冠状病毒感染肺炎患者的特殊报销政策具体为:

一是将国家卫生健康委《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案》覆盖的药品和医疗服务项目,全部临时纳入医保基金支付范围(expenses from medicines and medical services needed for treating the pneumonia will be completely covered by medical insurance funds)。

二是保证及时支付患者费用,特别是发挥医疗救助资金的兜底保障作用(make full use of the medical assistance fund to ensure that medical bills of pneumonia patients are paid in time),打消患者就医顾虑。对异地就医患者先救治后结算,报销不再执行异地转外就医支付比例调减规定,减少患者流动带来的传染风险。

三是对集中收治的医院,医保部门将预付资金减轻医院垫付压力(medical insurance departments will pay for expenses incurred in the treatment of the disease in advance to lessen financial pressures on hospitals),患者医疗费用不再纳入医院总额预算控制指标。

(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

来源:中国日报网