5月,亚洲文明对话大会在北京举行;中国铁路总公司对违规“买短乘长”的行为出手进行治理;2019中国国际大数据产业博览会在贵阳开幕;微信宣布对“非正常营销手段”进行治理;北京地铁禁止饮食、大声播放音乐视频、占座等不文明行为;小龙虾入榜云南外来入侵物种名单;铁路候补购票功能对所有旅客列车开放;八达岭长城宣布进入全网络实名购票时代;国足迎来首位归化球员。

夜间经济 nighttime economy

Nighttime consumption in Beijing during the four-day May Day holiday has been on the rise, as the capital continues to drive economic growth with what it calls \"nighttime economy.\" 北京继续推动夜间经济发展,“五一”四天假期期间,夜间消费持续升温。

所谓“夜间经济(nighttime economy)”一般指从当日下午6点到次日凌晨6点所发生的服务业方面的商务活动(business activities between 6 pm and 6 am in the service sector),其业态囊括晚间购物、餐饮、旅游、娱乐、学习、影视、休闲等。

2019年北京两会期间,北京市政府在部署2019年主要任务时提出,将在今年出台繁荣夜间经济促消费政策(policies encouraging nighttime consumption),鼓励重点街区及商场、超市、便利店适当延长营业时间。

Restaurant consumption in mall-clustered Wangfujing, Sanlitun and Qingnianlu surged 51.3 percent during the nighttime hours compared with the same period last year. 王府井、三里屯和青年路等商场集中区域18点至次日凌晨6点夜间餐饮消费同比增长达51.3%。

买短乘长 boarding with short-distance tickets but traveling to farther destinations

Many passengers complained on China's social media platforms that they had bought tickets in advance, but were denied boarding by railway staff because of overloading-the result of some passengers buying short distance tickets but refusing to get off at their corresponding destinations. 很多乘客在社交媒体上抱怨称,他们提前买了票,但是列车员以超员为由不让他们上车,而超员的原因是部分乘客“买短乘长”的行为,即购买了短途车票,但是到站后不下车。

“买短乘长(boarding with short-distance tickets but traveling to farther destinations)”本来是铁路部门为满足部分乘客临时变更到站的需要而提供的应急便利措施,这一类乘客可以在途中找列车员办理补票手续(pay to extend their tickets)。

但是在出行高峰期,“买短乘长”行为增多则会损害提前购票乘客的合法权益。

中国铁路总公司5日表示,为确保铁路运输安全秩序,维护良好旅行环境,铁路部门会根据客流情况,决定是否办理越站补票手续。

The railway will decide whether to allow passengers to purchase extension tickets after boarding based on the current passenger numbers and the number of pre-sold tickets for the next station. 铁路工作人员会根据当前车内人数、前方站预售车票情况,决定是否办理越站补票手续。

Passengers who insist on staying aboard but fail to pay for the extended trip will be charged an extra 50 percent of the extension ticket price upon arrival. 如果旅客没有按规定补票强行越站乘车,到站后铁路部门将加收已乘区间应补票价50%的票款。

报废机动车 scrap vehicles

The circular, targeting vehicles that should be scrapped according to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Road Traffic Safety, is aimed at protecting the environment, boosting development of the recycling economy, and ensuring safe transportation. 该办法主要针对根据《中华人民共和国道路交通安全法》规定应当报废的机动车,旨在保护环境,促进循环经济发展,保障道路交通安全。

这里的“报废机动车(scrap vehicles)”不仅包括汽车,还包括上路行驶的挂车(trailers)、摩托车(motorcycles)和轮式专用机械车(wheeled machinery for special purposes)。

【单词讲解】

Scrap这个词基本的意思就是“废弃、取消、残余”,可以用作动词、名词及形容词,用法很灵活,比如,a scrap of paper指“一个小纸片”,而scrap paper则是“废纸”。在表示“报废机动车”的时候,scrap vehicles 或者scrapped vehicles都可以,只不过scrap vehicles这个说法用得更多一些。

办法规定,拆解的报废机动车发动机(engines)、方向机(steering wheels)、变速器(transmissions)、前后桥(front and rear axles)、车架(frames)等“五大总成”具备再制造条件的(suitable for remanufacturing),可以按照国家有关规定出售给具备再制造能力的企业予以循环利用;同时建立有效的安全管理制度,要求回收企业如实记录报废机动车“五大总成”等主要部件的数量、型号、流向等信息(record number, model and whereabouts about the five main parts)并上传至回收信息系统,做到来源可查、去向可追(to make sure everything is traceable)。

拆解的报废机动车“五大总成”以外的零部件符合保障人身和财产安全等强制性国家标准,能够继续使用的,可以出售,但应当标明“报废机动车回用件(recycled parts from scrap vehicles)”。

Recycled scrap vehicles should be dismantled as stipulated. Large coaches, vans, and school buses should be disassembled under the supervision of public security agencies. 回收的报废机动车必须按照有关规定予以拆解;其中,回收的报废大型客车、货车等营运车辆和校车,应当在公安机关的监督下解体。

移动支付 mobile payment

China's mobile payment index was 197.84 in 2018 and the scale of China's digital economy reached 31.3 trillion yuan in the same year, accounting for 34.8 percent of the county's GDP. Shanghai, Hangzhou and Beijing are the top three cities for robust development of mobile payment in China, according to the report. 报告显示,2018年末,中国移动支付发展指数(CMPI)为197.84,2018年我国数字经济规模达31.3万亿元,占GDP比重为34.8%。上海、杭州、北京位列移动支付前三强。

【单词讲解】

Account for在这里表示“(在数量、比例上)占”,后面一般会跟表示占比的数字或者描述性表达,比如:They account for less than five percent of the population.(他们在总人口中的比例不到5%。)另外,account for还可以表示“对...负责;对...作出说明(解释)”,比如:The president must account for his government's reforms.(总统必须为他的政府改革负责。)I couldn't account for the loss.(这次失利,我没法解释。)

在一些新闻报道中,我们经常会看到“At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for”这样的表达,在这里,unaccounted for就是“下落不明”的意思。

中国移动支付发展指数(China's mobile payment index)由国家信息中心、中国经济信息社及蚂蚁金融服务集团联合编制,从信息化基础(digital infrastructure)、商业消费(business consumption)和政务民生支付(payments related to government affairs and people's livelihoods)三个维度测度移动支付与城市竞争力的互促关系,为引领城市发展转型,提升城市治理能力提供了参考路径。

According to the report, the top 10 cities in terms of the 2018 mobile payment index are Shanghai, Hangzhou, Beijing, Wuhan, Chongqing, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Wenzhou and Nanjing. 报告显示,2018年,移动支付总指数前十强城市包括:上海、杭州、北京、武汉、重庆、天津、深圳、广州、温州、南京。

报告指出,我国移动支付发展水平呈现东高西低的阶梯状分布,一线城市领跑态势明显,移动支付十强城市集中分布在京津冀、长三角、珠三角三大经济区域内(Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta economic hubs)。

报告认为,随着应用场景不断丰富,移动支付已成为推动经济社会发展的重要力量(an important driving force for social economic development)。移动支付不仅改造了传统消费形态,而且催生了新的商业模式和产业链条(generate new business models and industry chains)。同时,移动支付为信用社会建设提供了广阔的天然土壤,为弥合区域发展差距提供了有效的抓手。

违法收集个人信息 illegally collecting personal information

据国家网信办官网消息,《App违法违规收集使用个人信息行为认定方法(征求意见稿)》自5月5日起公开征求社会意见。App哪些收集个人信息的行为属违法违规,将有明确界定。

Illegal behaviors include failing to remind users to read privacy policies when they install or use the apps, and collecting personal information for illegitimate purposes. 违法行为包括,在用户安装或使用app时没有提醒用户阅读隐私政策,以及出于非法用途收集用户个人信息。

按照征求意见稿,App违法违规收集个人信息共分为7种情形,包括:

没有公开收集使用规则(failing to publicly display rules of information collection and use),

没有明示收集使用个人信息的目的、方式和范围(failing to clarify the purpose, method and scope of personal information collection),

未经同意收集使用个人信息(collecting personal information without the users' consent),

违反必要性原则收集与其提供的服务无关的个人信息(collecting personal information that is not related to the functioning of the app),

未经同意向他人提供个人信息(providing users' personal information to others without the users' consent),

未按法律规定提供删除或更正个人信息功能(failing to provide features of deleting or modifying personal information),

侵犯未成年人在网络空间合法权益(infringing legal rights and interests of minors in cyberspace)。

征求意见稿提出,

App收集使用信息的目的违反合法、正当、必要原则,如仅仅以改善程序功能、提高用户体验、定向推送等为目的收集用户个人信息(collecting personal information only for the purpose of improving app functions and user experience, and targeted push);

在申请可收集个人信息的权限时,未告知收集使用的目的(failing to clarify the purpose of information collection while asking for users' authorization),如在申请调阅通讯录时没有说明原因;

每次要求用户提供个人敏感信息时,如身份证号、银行卡号等,未同步实时说明原因等也都将视为违法违规行为(failing to specify why they are asking users for sensitive information, such as an ID number or credit card number)。

此外,未经同意就开始收集个人信息;用户明确拒绝后,仍收集个人信息;未提供更正、删除个人信息,注销用户账号的功能;需人工处理的,受理后未在承诺时限内(无承诺时限的,以15个工作日为限)完成核查和处理的情形,也属于违法违规行为。

国家生态文明试验区 National Ecological Civilization Pilot Zone

The Implementation Plan for the National Ecological Civilization Pilot Zone (Hainan) vows to bring about a new pattern of harmonious coexistence of man and nature in China's modernization drive and write a chapter of Hainan for building a Beautiful China. 《国家生态文明试验区(海南)实施方案》提出要推动形成人与自然和谐共生的现代化建设新格局,谱写美丽中国海南篇章。

方案提出的战略定位是,将海南打造成生态文明体制改革样板区(model zone for institutional reform of ecological progress)、陆海统筹保护发展实践区(area for coordinated land and marine development)、生态价值实现机制试验区(pilot zone for ecological value realization mechanism)及清洁能源优先发展示范区(demonstration zone for prioritized development of clean energy)。

方案设定的主要目标包括:

By 2020, significant progress will have been made in the building of the pilot zone in Hainan, where the proportion of days with good air quality in cities remains above 98 percent, and the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter, or PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter), are not higher than 18 micrograms per cubic meter, according to the document. 到2020年,试验区建设取得重大进展,城镇空气质量优良天数比例保持在98%以上,细颗粒物(PM2.5)年均浓度不高于18微克/立方米并力争进一步下降。

Energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product will decrease by 10 percent compared with 2015, and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross regional product will decrease by 12 percent compared with 2015, it adds. 单位国内生产总值能耗比2015年下降10%,单位地区生产总值二氧化碳排放比2015年下降12%。

The plan foresees that by 2035, the environmental quality and the resource utilization efficiency will be of world leading level in the pilot zone. 到2035年,试验区生态环境质量和资源利用效率居于世界领先水平。

非正常营销手段 abnormal promotion methods

WeChat announced Monday that it will crack down on “abnormal promotion methods,” including vendors who ask users to share or advertise their goods on the platform in exchange for discounts or other incentives. 5月13日,微信宣布将对“非正常营销手段”进行治理,这类营销手段包括,商家要求用户在微信平台分享和推广其产品以获得折扣或其他形式的奖励。

【单词讲解】

Crack down on这个短语在新闻报道中很常见,一般表示“打击、治理”等意思,比如:crack down on organized crime(打击有组织犯罪)、 crack down on illegal guns(打击非法枪支)等;如果表示“打击”这个行为则可以用名词形式crackdown,比如: organized crime crackdown或者crackdown on organized crime。

微信发布公告称,近期某些公众号、应用软件等主体通过返学费(cash rewards)、送实物(in-kind rewards)等方式,利诱微信用户分享其链接(包括二维码图片等)到朋友圈打卡(entice users to share promotional links on their WeChat Moments)。

公告指出,诱导分享为非正常营销行为,严重破坏正常的朋友圈体验。一经发现,微信团队将进行如下处理:

包括但不限于停止链接内容在朋友圈继续传播、停止对相关域名或IP地址进行访问(deny access to related domain names or IP addresses),封禁相关开放平台账号或应用的分享接口(block sharing interfaces of related accounts or apps);

对重复多次违规及对抗行为的违规主体,将采取阶梯式处理机制,包括但不限于下调每日分享限额(decrease daily sharing quota)、限制使用微信登录功能接口(restrict access to WeChat login interface)、永久封禁账号、域名、IP地址或分享接口(permanently block accounts, domain names, IP addresses or sharing interfaces);

对涉嫌使用微信外挂并通过微信群实施诱导用户分享的个人账号(personal accounts that entice users to share in WeChat groups),将根据违规严重程度对该微信账号进行阶梯式处罚。

不文明乘车行为 uncivil behaviors

According to the regulations, passengers except for infants and those with medical conditions will not be allowed to eat or drink on the subway. 守则规定,除婴儿、病人外,乘客不得在列车车厢内进食。

根据上述文件,在地铁车厢内进食属不文明乘车行为,如劝阻制止不听,地铁运营单位有权拒绝提供乘车服务(violators who refuse to stop such behavior despite dissuasion will be denied boarding)。交通执法部门可将这种行为纳入个人信用不良信息(such behavior will be recorded in personal credit system)。

除了进食以外,规定中还列出了以下会被记入个人信用不良信息的不文明乘车行为:

采取违规进出闸机、伪造变造票卡等方式逃交票款(fare dodging);

在列车车厢内一人占用多个座位(one person occupying multiple seats);

推销产品或从事营销活动(marketing activities);

大声外放视频或音乐(playing videos or music without wearing headphones)。

值得注意的是,因不文明乘车行为(uncivil behaviors)记录个人信用不良信息的行为人,可以通过主动参加轨道交通志愿服务进行不良信息修复(wrongdoers can apply to correct the credit record by volunteering in rail transit services)。

此外,个人认为信用不良信息有误的,也可以向市交通执法部门申请个人信用不良信息复核(apply to review the record),市交通执法部门将进行核查并作出处理。

押金退还 deposit refund

The regulation is designed to prevent risk to users' money, strengthen protection of their rights and interests, and promote the healthy and stable development of emerging forms of transportation, the Transport Ministry said in a statement. 交通运输部表示,该管理办法旨在防范用户资金出现风险,加强用户权益保障,促进交通运输新业态健康稳步发展。

该办法所称交通运输新业态(emerging forms of transportation)包括网络预约出租汽车(online taxi-hailing)、汽车分时租赁(俗称“共享汽车” car sharing)和互联网租赁自行车(俗称“共享单车” bike sharing)等。自2019年6月1日起实施。

【单词讲解】

Emerging在这里表示“新兴的,新出现的”,与我们此前见过的emerging industry(新兴产业)、emerging countries(新兴国家)等用法一致。这个词的动词形式emerge除了表示“显露、出现”的意思之外,还可以表示“(从困境或不好的经历中)摆脱出来,熬出来”,比如:There is growing evidence that the economy is at last emerging from recession.(有越来越多的证据表明经济终于开始摆脱萧条。)

管理办法要求,运营企业原则上不收取用户押金,确有必要收取的,应当基于协议(any deposits should be based on agreements),提供运营企业专用存款账户(special deposit account)和用户个人银行结算账户(personal settlement account)两种资金存管方式,供用户选择。用户押金归用户所有,运营企业不得挪用(companies may not misappropriate deposit funds)。

在押金数额上,管理办法要求汽车分时租赁的单份押金金额不得超过运营企业投入运营车辆平均单车成本价格的2%(a deposit no more than 2% of the average cost of a car);互联网租赁自行车的单份押金金额不得超过运营企业投入运营车辆平均单车成本价格的10%(a deposit no more than 10% of the average cost of a single bike)。

管理办法明确了押金最长退还期限(the maximum period for deposit refund)。汽车分时租赁、互联网租赁自行车押金最长退款周期分别不超过15个工作日、 2个工作日。

为保障用户权益,管理办法规定,对符合约定预付资金退还条件的(eligible refund applications),运营企业不得拒绝、拖延退还(companies should not refuse or delay refunding)。

步行友好性 walkability

In its assessments, Zhongguancun Street in Beijing's Haidian district was the most walker-friendly of the 71 urban centers in the 50 major cities evaluated. 这项评价涵盖了全国50个主要城市的71个城市中心,其中,北京市海淀区的中关村街道对行人最友好。

【单词讲解】

后缀形式-friendly表示“对...友好的、适合...的”,近几年使用率颇高,比如,user-friendly(用户友好的)、environment-friendly(对环境友好的;环保的)、children-friendly(对儿童友好的;适合儿童的)等。

报告指出,步行友好性(walkability)是宜居城市的重要指标之一(an important indicator of its livability)。步行友好的街道(a walking friendly street)不仅应有平整的铺装(smoothly surfaced)和遮阴的行道树(shade trees),让市民行走时感到安全舒适,在街道两侧还应有商店、餐馆等便民服务设施(accessible amenities)。

此次报告选取了包括直辖市、省会和地级市在内的50个城市,涉及城市中居住、就业和休闲功能分布最密集的核心区,称之为“城市活力中心”(city center/downtown)。通过对城市活力中心内街道环境的9项指标打分,得出街道环境指数。这9项指标包括步道无长期占道(footpaths free of long-time occupation)、过街设施(pedestrian crossings)、步道宽度适宜(footpaths of reasonable width)、机非隔离设施(buffers between the street and the sidewalk)、专用自行车道(bike lanes)、街道家具(street furniture)等。

在9项指标中,步道无长期占道、过街设施和步道宽度适宜是3项专家打分权重最高的指标(the most weighted three indicators),主要考察街道基本环境要素。单从这3项指标看,上海九江路和北京国贸CBD得分最高。此外,中关村在专用自行车道的得分上遥遥领先于其他城市活力中心(Zhongguancun Street scored the highest for its bike lane, way ahead of other city centers)。

与最好走街道屈指可数的情况相反,在71个城市活力中心的1.2万条道路中,最难走的道路(the most walker-unfriendly streets)有1329条,占所有测算范围内道路长度的8.1%。

王源抽烟 Wang Yuan smoking

The footage and accompanying screenshots shared to microblogging platform Weibo on Tuesday morning, which show the singer also known as Roy Wang smoking a cigarette, quickly inspired a hashtag translating to “Wang Yuan smoking,” which had over 1 billion views by that evening. 王源吸烟的视频和截图21日上午在微博发布后,迅速引发了#王源抽烟#热门话题标签,当晚,该话题阅读量已经超过10亿。

【单词讲解】

Hashtag原本指“井号(#)”,在社交媒体平台多用来标注某个话题,也称为“话题标签”。微博上常见的一些跟话题相关的功能有:热搜榜(most searched hashtags)、热门话题榜(most popular hashtags)等。

如果要表达“某个话题在微博上疯传”就可以用很经典的句式the hashtag went viral on Weibo来表示。

21日下午2点44分,王源在微博上就此事公开道歉。

Wang issued an apology on his Weibo account, saying he had set a “bad example” and would accept any punishment handed down to him for the incident. 王源在微博上公开道歉,称自己做了一个错误的示范,会承担相应的责任并接受处罚。

He apologized for the potential negative influence from his misbehavior, promising better behavior in the future. 他表示,对自己造成的不良社会影响,感到十分抱歉和愧疚,今后一定会更加注重自身的言行。

The Beijing Center of Health Supervision warned punishment would follow if they can confirm these violations, adding the matter has been under investigation in a post released on its official Sina Weibo account. 北京市卫生监督中心在官方微博上表示,正在对此事进行核实调查,如果情况属实,将依法进行处罚。

随后朝阳区卫监所对位于工人体育馆附近的“桐寿司”进行执法检查。

执法人员现场检查发现,餐厅没有禁止吸烟的标识(they can't find any \"no smoking\" sign at the restaurant),也没有相应的禁止吸烟管理制度,违反了相关要求。朝阳区卫监所责令该餐厅限期改正(order correction within a specified time limit),整改期间如果仍有问题,将依法进行处理。

2015年6月1日起施行的《北京市控制吸烟条例》规定的禁烟范围:

公共场所、工作场所的室内区域以及公共交通工具(indoor public places, workplaces and public transport facilities);

幼儿园、中小学校、少年宫、儿童福利机构等以未成年人为主要活动人群的场所(places where minors frequently visit);

对社会开放的文物保护单位(cultural relic protection units open to the public);

体育场、健身场的比赛区和坐席区(competition area and audience area of stadiums and gymnasiums);

妇幼保健机构、儿童医院的室外区域(outdoor areas at maternal and child care institutes and children's hospitals)。

条例规定,个人违反本条例规定,在禁止吸烟场所或者排队等候队伍中吸烟的,由市或者区、县卫生计生行政部门责令改正,可以处50元罚款;拒不改正的,处200元罚款(individuals who smoke at smoke-free areas will be fined 50 yuan, and the fine rises to 200 yuan if the violators refuse to correct their behavior)。

禁烟场所经营者发现客人吸烟而不劝阻的,由市或者区、县卫生计生行政部门处5000元以上1万元以下罚款。

候补购票服务 waitlist function

Starting from May 22, the waitlist function previously trialed on some rail routes will be available to all passenger trains in China. 5月22日起,此前在部分铁路线路上试用的候补购票功能将对所有旅客列车开放。

候补购票服务(waitlist function)是指在通过12306网站和APP购票时,如遇所需车次、席别无票(when the desired ticket is sold out),可自愿按日期、车次、席别、预付款提交购票需求(submit a ticket order and pay in advance),售票系统自动排队候补(the system will put the order in a waiting list),当对应的车次、席别有退票时,系统自动兑现车票(should there be ticket cancellation that matches your order, the system will automatically confirm it),并将购票结果通知购票人。

据悉,为了保证候补需求的真实性,在申请该项服务前,用户需进行人证一致性核验。

每位用户可提交1个候补订单(each user can only submit one order in the waiting list),每笔候补订单中乘车人不超过3人。1个订单中可添加发到站相同(可以是同城的不同车站)的2个相邻的乘车日期,每个乘车日期可添加2个不同“车次+席别”的组合需求。

值得注意的是,候补购票预付款按该单不同组合需求中票款的最高额度计算(卧铺按下铺票价计算)。

Users will have to prepay the maximum price for the waitlisted tickets, and once their tickets are confirmed, the price difference will be refunded if there is any. If they failed to get tickets, the system will give them a full refund. 用户候补购票预付款按该单不同组合需求中票款的最高额度计算,购票成功后,如有差价,系统会退还,如果购票失败,系统会全额退款。

用户主动终止或系统自动终止候补的,系统自动原额退还预付款。

人均预期寿命 average life expectancy

The average life expectancy of Chinese people rose 42 years, from 35 years in 1949 to 77 years in 2018, according to a statistics communique recently released by the National Health Commission. 国家卫健委发布的统计公报显示,我国居民人均预期寿命由1949年的35岁增长到2018年的77岁,增加了42岁。

【名词解释】

人均预期寿命(average life expectancy)是指在一定死亡水平下,预期每个人出生时平均可存活的年数(the average time a person is expected to live based on the year of his/her birth)。人均预期寿命是度量人口健康状况最重要的指标(an important marker of the overall health of a society),也是衡量一个国家或地区经济社会发展水平及医疗卫生服务水平的综合指标(a composite indicator of national or regional social economic development and health care service quality)。

国际上衡量一个国家居民健康水平的指标主要是人均预期寿命(average life expectancy)、婴儿死亡率(infant mortality rate)和孕产妇死亡率(maternal mortality rate)。

From 2017 to 2018, the infant mortality rate has dropped from 6.8 to 6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births, while the maternal mortality rate decreased from 19.6 to 18.3 per 100,000 births, said the government statistics. 统计显示,2017年至2018年,婴儿死亡率从6.8‰下降到6.1‰,孕产妇死亡率从19.6/10万下降到18.3/10万。

统计还显示,2018年乡镇卫生院和社区卫生服务中心(站)门诊量(outpatient treatments at primary-level clinics)达19.2亿人次,比上年增加0.4亿人次。基本医疗保险覆盖范围进一步扩大,城乡居民基本医保补贴(per capita basic medical insurance subsidy for urban and rural residents)有所增加。

国际疾病分类 International Classification of Diseases(ICD)

The World Health Organization (WHO) has for the first time included a chapter about traditional medicines that originated from ancient China in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11). The revision will come into effect on January 1, 2022. 世界卫生组织在《国际疾病分类第十一次修订本(ICD-11)》中首次纳入起源于古代中国的传统医学章节,该修订本将于2022年1月1日起实施。

国际疾病分类(International Classification of Diseases,ICD)是世界卫生组织制定颁布的、国际统一的疾病分类标准(the international standard for reporting diseases and health conditions),是各国政府在医疗、管理、教学和科研及制定政策中关于疾病分类的规范性标准,是全球卫生健康领域具有权威性的基础和通用标准之一。

世界卫生组织《总干事报告》指出,ICD-11 包括一个题为“传统医学病证——模块 1(Traditional medicine conditions – Module 1)”的备用补充章节,将起源于古代中国且当前在中国、日本、韩国和其它国家普遍使用的传统医学病证进行了分类(classifies traditional medicine conditions that originated in ancient China and are now commonly used in China, Japan, Republic of Korea and other countries)。将有关传统医学的补充章节纳入《国际疾病分类》将使我们第一次能够计数传统医学服务和就医情况,测量其形式、频率、有效性、安全性、质量、结果及费用(the measurement of their form, frequency, effectiveness, safety, quality, outcomes, cost),与主流医学进行对比(comparison with mainstream medicine),且因为在国家和国际层面都使用了标准化术语和定义而可以开展研究。

传统医学150条疾病(diseases)和196条证候(disorders)条目纳入传统医学章节,像“阴虚(yin deficiency)”“阳虚(yang deficiency)”等描述中医证候的词汇均在列。

中医界人士表示,中医专家对相关国际法规体系及制定过程并不熟悉,而外国专家对中医药也不很熟悉,因此,充分沟通增进了解十分关键。

\"The release of ICD-11 can help China establish a disease statistics network with the country's TCM health service information according to international standards,\" said Zhang Boli, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, also president of the Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 中国工程院院士、天津中医药大学校长张伯礼说:“《国际疾病分类第十一次修订本(ICD-11)》的正式发布有助于我国建立与国际标准相衔接并体现我国中医药卫生服务信息的疾病统计网络。”

亚洲文明对话大会 Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations

President Xi Jinping attended the opening ceremony of the Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations in Beijing on May 15 and delivered a keynote speech. He called for efforts to jointly create a brighter future for civilizations of Asia and the world. 5月15日,国家主席习近平出席亚洲文明对话大会开幕式并发表主旨演讲。他在讲话中呼吁共同创造亚洲文明和世界文明的美好未来。

2014年5月,亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议第四次峰会在上海举行,习近平主席在峰会上讲话时,首次提到了亚洲文明对话大会。2019年5月亚洲文明对话大会在北京举行,大会围绕亚洲文明交流互鉴与命运共同体(exchanges and mutual learning among Asian civilizations as well as a community with a shared future)的主题,举办了开幕式和六场平行分论坛,还举办了亚洲文化嘉年华(Asian cultural carnivals)、亚洲文明周(Asian civilization week)、亚洲美食节(Asian food festival)等活动。

外来入侵物种 invasive alien species

The provincial government of Yunnan has published a new list of invasive alien species. It includes 441 alien species and 4 variants, such as Fushou snails, Blattella Americana as well as crayfish, 50.1% of which originate from the American continent, according to a report from the Xinhua News Agency. 据新华社报道,云南省政府发布了新版外来入侵物种名录,收录了福寿螺、美洲大蠊(大蟑螂)以及小龙虾等外来入侵物种441种及4个变种,其中50.1%的原产地来自美洲。

【名词解释】

所谓外来入侵物种(invasive alien species),是指在当地的自然或者半自然生态系统中形成了自我再生能力(develop a self-reproduction ability)、可能或者已经对生态环境、生产或者生活造成明显损害或者不利影响(cause visible damage to or negative impact on the environment, production or daily life)的外来物种。

云南此次发布的《名录》将入侵物种划分为5大类,包括Ⅰ级恶性入侵类(invasive alien species of malignant consequences)、Ⅱ级严重入侵类(invasive alien species of severe consequences)、Ⅲ级局部入侵类( invasive alien species of partial consequences)、Ⅳ级一般入侵类(invasive alien species of average consequences)、Ⅴ级有待观察类(invasive alien species to be observed)。

其中,Ⅰ级恶性入侵类包括微甘菊、凤眼蓝(水葫芦)、褐云玛瑙螺、小管福寿螺等。美洲大蠊(大蟑螂)、克氏原螯虾(小龙虾)、牛蛙等属于Ⅱ级严重入侵类。

曾参与中科院昆明动物研究所就对滇池流域小龙虾分布范围和种群数量全面调查项目的杜丽娜说:“小龙虾治理没有特效办法,只能通过截断、围挡等手段(constructing barriers)控制其生存范围。而大量人工捕捞反而会扩大其种群生存空间,从而刺激小龙虾加速繁殖。”

小龙虾可通过捕食本地动植物(predating on local animals and plants)、携带和传播致病源(carrying or spreading pathogen)等方式危害土著物种,同时其掘洞习性(habit of hole digging)对水利工程有破坏作用,严重的可能引发决堤洪涝等险情。

北京师范大学生命科学院教授廖万金表示,如果“吃货”能解决一切问题,就不会出现物种入侵了。

据了解,目前常用的防治外来入侵物种的方式主要有人工防治、化学防治等,人工防治(manual control)依靠人力或者机械设备进行清除,化学防治(chemical control)则是用化学除草剂(use of pesticides)防除。

大数据 big data

The China International Big Data Industry Expo 2019 kicked off in Guiyang, Guizhou province, on Sunday. The four-day event has attracted 448 enterprises from 59 countries and regions to show the latest products, solutions, technologies, achievements and patterns on big data. 2019中国国际大数据产业博览会5月26日在贵州省贵阳市开幕,为期4天的数博会吸引了来自59个国家和地区的448家企业参展,将展示大数据新产品、新方案、新技术、新成果以及新模式。

从2019年开始,数博会每年邀请一个国家作为主宾国(host country),在大会期间举办专题活动,展示主宾国大数据相关成果,提供技术分享及交流合作的机会。

2019年5月26日,习近平在向2019中国国际大数据产业博览会致贺信中指出:

China attaches great importance to the development of the big data industry, and is willing to share opportunities of the digital economy's development with other countries and jointly explore new growth drivers and development paths by exploring new technologies, new business forms and new models. 中国高度重视大数据产业发展,愿同各国共享数字经济发展机遇,通过探索新技术、新业态、新模式,共同探寻新的增长动能和发展路径。

八达岭长城 the Badaling section of the Great Wall

In a bid to keep crowd sizes down, authorities in charge of the Badaling section of the Great Wall in Beijing are introducing real-name online ticketing as of June 1, with daily ticketing being capped at 65,000, according to the Badaling office of Yanqing district. 延庆区八达岭政府表示,为了控制游客数量,八达岭长城景区管理部门将从6月1日起实行全网络实名制售票,每日游客总量控制在6.5万人次。

【单词讲解】

Cap这个词大家都认识,本意是“帽子”,尤指那种带帽舌的帽子,比如baseball cap(棒球帽)。在这里,cap作为动词使用,表示“对(价格、支出、借款等)进行限制”,相当于set a limit on/put a ceiling/impose a cap on,比如,Their salary was capped at 10,000 yuan per month./The management team put a salary cap of 10,000 yuan on them.(他们的月薪不能超过1万元。)而且这里的限制一般都指“上限”,因为ceiling和cap都在我们的头顶,在某件事上加了个天花板或者帽子,其实就是相当于“给某事设了一个上限”。

景区工作人员介绍,计划游览八达岭长城的游客,包括散客购票和旅游机构团队购票(individual and group tourists),可以登录八达岭长城官方在线售票系统(ticket.badaling.cn)、八达岭长城景区官网(www.badaling.cn)或者关注八达岭长城景区官方微信公众号,提前7天进行网上预约购票(purchase tickets seven days in advance)。预约购票成功的游客可持身份证直接入园。

为了保障限流措施顺利实施,景区结合多年来游客接待的工作经验,以及山岳型景区地势特点,制定了详细的旅游者流量控制方案和限制游客流量方案,并建立了三级预警机制。

景区日接待量(the number of visitors)达到日最佳承载量(the best carrying capacity)的60%(即3.9万人次),将发布黄色预警(yellow alert);

景区日接待量(the number of visitors)达到日最佳承载量(the best carrying capacity)的80%(即5.2万人次),将发布橙色预警(orange alert);

景区日接待量(the number of visitors)达到日最佳承载量(the best carrying capacity)的100%(即6.5万人次),将发布红色预警(red alert)。

当游客人数超过预警值,八达岭长城景区将会采取暂缓检票(suspend admission)以及利用信息化手段及时对外发布门票剩余信息(timely release of ticket information)等措施,对游客流量进行控制。

性侵害违法记录 record of sexual misconduct

上海市《关于建立涉性侵害违法犯罪人员从业限制制度的意见》5月29日正式对外发布,旨在健全完善与未成年人密切接触行业从业人员的招录和管理机制,加强对性侵害未成年人犯罪的源头预防。这一意见由上海市16家相关单位会签并出台。

Lawbreakers with a history of criminal penalties for rape or child molestation, or administrative penalties for seducing, providing shelter and making introductions for prostitution will be barred from jobs at schools, training institutions, day care centers, hospitals and child welfare facilities. 学校、培训机构、托育机构、医院以及儿童福利机构等领域的从业人员如果因实施强奸、猥亵儿童等犯罪行为,被追究刑事责任,或因实施引诱、容留、介绍卖淫等违法行为而被行政处罚将不被录用。

【单词讲解】

这里的be barred from表示“禁止、阻止”,与我们常见的ban是近义词,bar和ban通常可以替换使用。如果一定要讲这两个词的区别的话,ban的动词和名词形式多用于表示政府官方机构颁布的“禁令”,而bar通常不带有官方性质。另外,在美剧中经常会看到监狱都有一面铁栅栏墙,所以behind bars表示“进监狱”,比如,The police said they would put him behind bars some day.(警察说总有一天要把他关进监狱。)

除了对教师、医生、教练、保育员等直接对未成年人负有特殊职责的工作人员进行审查外,意见还将保安、门卫、驾驶员等不具有特殊职责,但具有密切接触未成年人条件的其他工作人员纳入适用对象(the policy also applies to security guards, gatekeepers and school bus drivers who have opportunities to come into contact with minors at work)。同时,与未成年人密切接触行业用人单位招募的志愿者在入职前也需进行审查(volunteers recruited for such institutions will be screened as well)。

此外,与未成年人密切接触行业用人单位在招录工作人员时,应当要求包括外国籍人员在内的应聘人员如实报告本人是否存在性侵害等违法犯罪记录(job applicants should honestly tell employers whether they have any record of sexual misconduct or not)。

用人单位应当对拟录用人员是否存在性侵害违法犯罪记录的情况进行审查,并可以向公安机关进行核实(verify with the police)。

归化球员 naturalized player

Beijing Guo'an midfielder Li Ke will become the first naturalized player ever to enter the Chinese men's national team as the Chinese Football Association released the new 24-man squad called up by newly returned head coach Marcelo Lippi on Thursday. 中国足协5月30日公布了里皮回归主教练之后的新一期24人集训名单,北京国安中场球员李可成为首位入选男足国家队的归化球员。

【名词解释】

归化(naturalization)指非某国公民获取该国公民身份或国籍的行为或过程(the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country)。

归化球员(naturalized player),是指在自己国籍以外自愿、主动取得其他国家国籍的球员(a player who willingly and voluntarily acquires nationality of a country other than his country of origin)。

根据国际足联规定,球员需满足以下4个条件中的至少一个才能“归化”:

1、球员出生在该国(the player was born in the host country);

2、球员的父母至少一方出生在该国(either one of the player's parents was born in the host country);

3、球员的祖父母至少一方出生在该国(either one of the player's grandparents was born in the host country);

4、在入籍国连续生活满5年(the player has been living in the host country for at least 5 years)。

同时,球员没有代表其他协会的成年国家队参加国际足联A级赛事的记录。

李可和同为国安队友的侯永永是中国足球历史上第一批归化球员。今年1月31日国安官宣侯永永和李可作为归化球员加盟,他们的母亲都来自中国。

Li Ke, 26, came from English Premier League side Arsenal's youth academy and has played for Arsenal and English Championship side Brentford. 李可,26岁,出身于阿森纳青训,曾效力于阿森纳和英冠俱乐部布伦特福德。

Hou Yongyong, 21,joined Guo'an from Norway's first division league giants Rosenborg Ballklub. He started playing for Rosenborg Ballklub from 16 and was the youngest player in the club's history. 侯永永,21岁,加入国安前效力于挪超豪门罗森博格。他16岁代表罗森博格在联赛中出场,成为队史上最年轻的联赛出场球员。

各国对归化人员的要求各不相同,不过基本都要求遵守入籍国的法律(obey and uphold the host country's laws)、对入籍国的主要语言和文化有足够的了解(adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture)。

3月29日,中国足协发布《中国足球协会入籍球员管理暂行规定》,对归化球员提出了相关要求,并对归化球员的转会(transfer)、注册(registration)、参赛(entry)等做出了具体规定。

\"Naturalized players should be given traditional Chinese cultural education and learn Chinese history and the [country's current] situation,\" states a new regulation released by the Chinese Football Association. 中国足协发布的规定指出:“归化球员应接受传统中国文化教育,学习中国历史及当前国情。”

Naturalized players should be able to tell the national flag and emblem and sing the national anthem, the regulation says. 归化球员应该认识国旗、国徽,会唱国歌。

业内人士表示,从国外经验来看,归化国脚确实能让国家队实力在短时间内有质的提升,在取得荣誉后使得本国足球受到广泛关注,从而推动发展。与归化工作同步的,应是对于我们自身人才的培养。

(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

来源:中国日报网