Unit 7 International charities

Welcome to the unit

1. You have some pocket money left. 你还剩余一些零花钱。

◆ 注意:left是leave的过去分词,在此句中做后置定语,修饰pocket money,意为:剩下的、没有用完的。

left相当于一个形容词,放在被修饰的名词或anything/nothing/nobody等不定代词之后。

eg:I have only one food ticket left. There is nothing left in the fridge.

◆ leave for 动身前往 leave 忘带,落下,离开

2. have a big lunch 吃顿丰盛的午餐

3. I’m too weak to walk any further. 我太虚弱,走不动了。

◆ I’m so weak that I can’t walk any further. = I’m not strong enough to walk any further.

◆ farther, further 这两个词都是far的比较级形式。

①farther和further都可指具体的距离,即空间时间上的“较远”。 Let's not go any farther/further.

②further还可用于抽象的引申义,如时间,程度和数量等,表示“进一步,更进一层”,此时,不能与farther换用。

I may be able to give you some further information about it.

The problem will be further discussed at the class meeting.

4. help build a better world for everyone帮着为每个人建立一个更好的世界 a better world一个更美好的世界

5. provide basic education for children in poor areas为贫穷地区的孩子们提供基础教育

basic education基础教育 receive basic education接受基础教育

6. work for the equal rights of girls and women 为女孩和妇女的平等权利而工作

work for 为…而工作 equal rights平等的权利

8. prevent the spread of some serious diseases among young people预防年轻人中一些严重疾病的扩散

◆prevent ...(from) doing sth.; stop ...(from) doing sth.;keep ...from doing sth.; 均表示“阻止……做某事”。

上述三个结构中,在主动语态中stop 与prevent后可省去from,但在被动语态中不可省略;

而keep ...from ...中的from在任何情况下都不能省略。

The heavy rain prevented us going on, but we didn’t lose heart.

在被动语态中,from都不可省。 We were prevented by the rain from going there.

◆ protect…from/against…表示“保护……免受……”例如:Protect children from violence

9. do a good job 干得不错;完成得很好

Reading

1. an interview with an ORBIS doctor 一次对奥比斯医生的采访

2. tell us something about blindness告诉我们关于失明的一些事

say,speak,tell,talk的区别和用法

▲ say一般作及物动词用,着重说话的内容,它的宾语可以是名词,代词或宾语从句。

eg: He can say his name. 他会说他的名字。 Please say it in English. 请用英语用。

▲ speak强调说的动作,不强调所说的内容 。作及物动词时,常以某种语言作宾语。

作不及物动词时,常见的搭配形式有: speak of something/somebody谈到某事(某人)speak to sb 跟某人讲话,此外speak还可用于在较为正式的场合了表演讲或演说。

Can you speak Japanese? 你会说日语吗? She is speaking to her teacher. 她正在跟她的老师说话。

He spoke at the meeting yesterday. 他昨天在会上讲了话。

▲ talk 一般为不及物动词,意思是“交谈,谈话,着重强调两具之间的相互说话。

eg: She is talking with Lucy in English. 她正在和露茜用英语交谈。 What are you talking about? 你们在谈论什么?

The teacher is talking to him. 老师正在和他谈话。

▲ tell常作及物动词,意为“讲述,告诉,动词常跟双宾语。

tell sb sth=tell sth to sb告诉某人某事。 Did you tell her the news?=Did you tell the news to her?

tell sb to do sth 叫某人做某事 tell sb not to do sth 让某人不做某事

3. have eye problems 有眼疾

4. 80 per cent of these cases 80%的病例

“分数(百分数)+of+名词”结构作主语时,谓语动词的数与其中名词的数保持一致。如:

About 30 percent of the pupils were absent that day. 那天大约有30%的学生未到。

Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is covered by sea. 地球表面的四分之三是海。

5. have money for medical treatment medical treatment医疗 medical是medicine形容词形式,医学的

6. Flying Eye Hospital 眼科飞机医院

7. do operations on sb. =operate on sb. 给某人做手术 operate 动词, operation名词

8. be used as a training centre 被用作培训中心

9. Many of our patients can’t afford to go to hospital. go to hospital去看病

afford sth.买得起某物 afford to do sth.负担得起做某事 can’t afford 负担不起

10. on board 在飞机(船、火车)上 11. learn about eye operations 学习眼科手术

12. teach them new skills 教他们新的技能

13. during a visit 在一次拜访中 during the last visit在上次的拜访中

14. be proud to do sth 以…做某事而自豪 be proud of 以…为荣

pride是proud的名词形式,be proud of =take pride in

15. help people see again帮助人们重见光明

16. treat people with eye problems治疗有眼疾的人 cure most eye diseases 治愈大多数眼病

cure sb. of sth. 治好某人的病 Dr. Ma cured the old man of his blindness.

17. carry on working/carry on with our work 继续开展我们的工作 carry on (with sth) 继续开展,继续下去

18. Modern medicine is developing quickly. 现代医学正迅速发展

Develop动词,发展;加强 develop quickly发展很快

development名词, 发展 with the development of 随着----的发展

developed发达的developing发展中的a developed country一个发达国家a developing country一个发展中的国家

19. Thank you for your time. 感谢你的时间。

20. cut a person’s body open 给某人开刀 cut----open把---切开

21. the condition of being unable to see不能看见东西的状态

22. many more people 更多的人 23. get treatment得到治疗

Grammar, integrated skills and study skills

1. hand out leaflets to people向人们分发传单 hand out 分发;提出 hand in上交

2. hold a charity show 举行一次慈善义演

3. be set up in Europe在欧洲建立 set up 建起,设立

4. part of the United Nations 联合国的一部分

5. make the world a better place for children 使得世界成为一个更适合孩子们的地方

6. want the children to be healthy想让孩子们健康

7. raise money by selling Christmas cards 通过卖圣诞卡片募集钱

8. organize some activities组织一些活动 9. prevent them from getting illness 防止他们得病

10. look pale看上去苍白

11. What’s the matter (with sb)?(某人)怎么了? What’s wrong with you?

I don’t feel well. 我觉得不舒服

12. get toothache 牙疼 13. How long have you felt like this? 你感觉这样/这么不舒服多久了?

14. have a check 检查一下 15. nothing serious 没有什么严重的

16. Take this medicine after meals three times a day. 饭后服药,一天三次。

17.not---at all一点也不 not---any more= no more不再

18. Will it be a success? Will it be successful? 它将会成功吗?

19. keep asking myself不断问我自己 20. No time to be nervous any more.没有时间再紧张了。

21. make a lot of noise发出很多吵闹声 22.have to speak loudly不得不大声说话

Task

1. a secretary of a company 一家公司的秘书 2. be afraid of flying 害怕飞行

3. train as a nurse 培训为一名护士 4. live in a comfortable flat 住在一个舒适的公寓里

5. take the plane 乘飞机 6. help poor people with eye problems see again 帮助患有眼疾的穷人重见光明

7. make up one’s mind to do sth 下定决心做某事 make up her mind to train as a nurse下定决心培训当护士

decide to do sth.

8. attend courses 参加课程 9. travel over 300 days a year 一年中超过300天都在旅游

10. get used to travelling by plane 习惯于乘飞机旅行

11. have as much money as before 和以前有一样多的钱

12. She thinks her life is more meaningful. 她认为她的人生更有意义。

13. used to work on the farm all day 过去常常整日在农场上工作

14. an officer 一个官员

15. learn about the conditions of the local people 了解当地人们的情况

16. enter a school 考入学校

三. 词形变化

1. especial-especially 2. educate-education

3. spread-spread-spread 4. interview-interviewer read-reader office-officer

5. blind-blindness 6. medicine-medical

7. treat-treatment 8. develop-developed-developing-development

9. hold-held-held set-set-set-setting 10. secretary-secretaries

11. operate-operation 12. most-mostly

 一、 被动语态的用法:

1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词

Our classroom is cleaned everyday. 我们教室每天都被打扫。

I am asked to study hard. 我被告知要努力学习。

Knives are used for cutting things. 刀是用来切东西的。

2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

A new shop was built last year. 去年修了一座新商店。

Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago. 恐龙蛋被放置了很久很久。

3. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

A new hospital will be built in our city. 我们城市将要修建一家新医院。

Many more trees will be planted next year. 明年会种更多的树。

4. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

My bike is being repaired by Tom now. 王叔叔正在修理我的自行车。

They are planting trees over there. →

Trees are being planted over there by them. 他们在那里种植的树木。

5. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词

This book has been translated into many languages. 这本书被翻译成多种文字。

Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries. 在许多国家有许多人造卫星被送上了太空。

6.过去进行时的被动语态构成:was/were + being + 及物动词的过去分词

The boy was being operated on when his parents hurried to the hospital.当他的父母赶到医院的时候这个男孩正在做手术。

The new road was being made.这条新路正在修筑。

7.过去完成时的被动语态构成:had + been + 及物动词的过去分词

The classroom hadn’t been cleaned before the teacher came. 在老师来之前,教室尚未打扫。

The tickets had been sold out before I came to the cinema.在门票被销售一空前我赶到了电影院。

8.将来完成时的被动语态构成:shall/will + have done

They will have been married for 20 years by then. 届时,他们结婚将满20周年。

The project will have been completed before May.该项目将在五月前完成。

9.含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

Young trees must be watered often. 小树需要经常浇水。

Your mistakes should be corrected right now. 你应该现在就改正你的错误。

The door may be locked inside. 这扇门可以反锁。

Your homework can be handed in tomorrow. 你的家庭作业可以明天交。

二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?

把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:

1. 先找出谓语动词; 2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;

3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语; 4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。

例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week. 布鲁斯每星期写一封信。

2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning. 李雷今天上午在修理坏的自行车。

3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far. 至今他已写了两部小说。

4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow. 他们明天将要种植十棵树。

5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now. 露西正在写信。

6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave. 当你离开的时候你必须把门锁上。

三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:

1. 不及物动词无被动语态。

What will happen in 100 years?一百年里会发生什么事?

The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago. 约65万年前恐龙灭绝。

  2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。

This pen writes well. 这支钢笔很好写。

This new book sells well. 这本新书卖的很好。

3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to 。

例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by. 一个女孩看到我的钱夹掉了当她经过的时候。

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss. 这个老板让这小男孩干重活。

4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him. 他给了我一本书。

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him. 他给我展示了一张票。

My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father. 我父亲给我买了一辆新自行车。

5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laugh at by us. 我们不能嘲笑他。

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day. 他每天都收听广播。

The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.这护士在照顾这个虚弱的男人。

Grammar

一、构成 学习一般将来时的被动语态,首先应掌握其各种结构形式。

1.肯定式will(shall)+be+动词的过去分词

2.否定式will(shall)+not+be+动词的过去分词

3.疑问式Will(Shall)+主语+be+动词的过去分词?

简略回答Yes,主语+will(shall).No,主语+won't(shan't).

现在,请看实例:

A) 肯定句:Anew stadium will be put up here.

否定句:Anewstadium will not(won't)be put up here.

疑问句及简略回答:Will a new stadium be put up here?Yes,it will./No,it won't.

特殊疑问句及回答:What will be put up here?A new stadium.

B)A lot of athletes will be invited to Beijing.But those who have used illegal drugs will not be invited.(但那些使用违禁药物的将不被邀请。)Will some world-famous singers be invited?Yes,they will.Who else will be invited?Some judges and sports officials,of course.

二、其他结构

表示将来意义的被动结构还有:

1.be going to be done;

2.be to be done;

3.will(shall)+get +done等。

例如: Some old buildings are going to be put down.

The 29th Olympic Games is to be held in Beijing in 2008.

The workers will get paid before the end of December.

同学们也要注意这些结构的否定式、疑问式等。例如:

These trees are not going to be cut down.Are these trees going to be cut down?Yes,they are.

The machines are not to be repaired tonight.Are they to be repaired tomorrow?Yes,they are.

三、注意事项

使用一般将来时的被动语态时,应注意以下两点:

1.在时间、条件状语从句中,应使用现在时表示将来时。同样,应使用现在时的被动语态表示将来时的被动语态。例如:He says he will leave the company if he is punished for this.

2.使用一般将来时被动语态时,学生易遗漏被动式中的be。例如:

【误】A new film will shown at the cinema next week.

【正】A new film will be shown at the cinema next week.

【误】Is this bridge going to completed before the end of this year?

【正】Is this bridge going to be completed before the end of this year?

四、基本结构

一: shall/will + be + done

【经典例题1】 I promise that this matter _____ next week.

A. will be taken care B. will take care of

C. will take good care D. will be taken care of

【思路点拨】 选D。从题干不难看出,一是从句中的 this matter 和 take care of 是被动关系;二是take care of 是固定搭配,不能拆开;三是相对于promise来说,take care of 是将要发生的动作。故从句谓语应用一般将来时的被动语态。

【经典例题2】 These dictionaries _____ the library again (by you ).

A. will be taken out of B. won’t be taken out of

C. will take out of D. won’t take out of

【思路点拨】选B。由题干结构及句意可知,此题考查的是一般将来时的被动语态的否定式。

另外,我们还应注意:其疑问式为Shall/Will + 主语 + be + done...? 或 特殊疑问词 + shall/will + 主语 + be + done...?

【经典例题3】 Hundreds of jobs ______ if the factory closes.(NMET 2001北京春季)

A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose

【思路点拨】答案选 B。lose jobs 的意思是“失业”。主语是jobs ,谓语动词要用被动语态。条件句中的谓语动词的一般现在时态表示将来。

2. 基本结构二: be(am / is /are)going to + be + done

【经典例题1】 The class ____ on everything they have learnt this year.

A. is going to be examining B. are going to examine

C. is going to be examined D. are going to be examined

【思路点拨】选D。题中the class指全班同学,谓语动词应用复数形式, 并且主语和谓语动词之间是被动关系, 所以谓语应用一般将来时的被动语态。

【经典例题2】 An exhibition of painting _____ at the art museum when he comes back from abroad.

A. is going to hold B. is going to be held

C. are going to hold D. are going to be held

【思路点拨】 选B。根据题意, 此处应用一般将来时的被动语态, 而且主谓应保持一致。

3. 基本结构三: be to + be + done

【经典例题1】The flowers_____ soon if you want to keep them alive

A. should water B. are watered C. water D. are to be watered

【思路点拨】选D。题中soon要求用将来时态,又有花被浇水,须被动语态,所以要用将来时的被动语态,只有D符合要求。

【经典例题2】In a room above the store, where a party_____ tomorrow, some workers are busily setting the table

A. is to be held B. has been held C. is being held D. was held

【思路点拨】选A。将来时的被动语态基本结构三: be to + be + done

Unit 8

Welcome to the unit

1. Will more trees be planted this year? 今年会种更多的树? plant trees植树

句中will be planted 意思是“将会被种植”,“will be + 动词的过去分词”是一般将来时的被动语态。

The panda will be sent to the zoo tomorrow. 这只大熊猫明天将被送到动物园。

2. Trees are good for us. 树对我们有益。

3. I like digging in the garden. 我喜欢在花园里挖土。 dig- dug -dug

4. Are you serious? 你是认真的吗? nothing serious没有什么严重的事情

be serious about sth.= take sth seriously 严肃对待 a serious illness 一个严重的病

5. reduce air pollution by riding bicycles.通过骑自行车减少空气污染。

reduce air pollution减少空气污染 “by doing sth.”意思是“通过做某事”。

6. save water by taking shorter showers通过少洗澡来节约水 take/have a shower 洗淋浴

7. save energy by turning off the lights 关灯节约能源

turn on/off + the light/the computer/TV/the radio 打开…… turn up 开大音量turn down关小音量

8. protect the environment by recycling waste通过循环利用废料的方式保护环境 recycle waste回收利用废物

9. What should we do to live a green life?为了过上环保的生活我们该做什么呢? live a …life 过着…的生活

10. drive to sp. = go to sp. by car意思是 “开车去某地”。 11.take the underground 乘地铁

12. It’s wise for people to choose public transport or ride bicycles. 人们选择坐公交或骑车是很明智的。

13. remember to turn off the lights 记得关灯 remember to do sth. 记得要做某事 remember doing sth.记得做了某事

Reading

1. a country with high mountains and clean blue lakes 一个拥有高山和清澈湛蓝湖水的国家

2. try to keep it that way努力保持它的原貌

3. In Switzerland, things like glass, plastic and paper are separated into different groups and then recycled. 在瑞士,像玻璃、塑料和纸被分成不同的小组,然后回收利用。

(1) separate意指从….分离、挑拣出来的意思, separate…..from 从一个大的整体里分出来。

The children are separating the good apples from the bad ones. 孩子们正在把好苹果与坏苹果分开。

England is separated from France by the Channel. 英吉利海峡把英国和法国分开。

We walked until midnight and then separated. 我们散步到午夜才分手。

(2)divide 意为“分割;分开”,强调把一个整体按等量或一定比例分开。它常与into连用。

He devided the apple into 4 pieces.〔他把那个苹果分成了4份.(苹果是一个整体)〕

(3)separate into 是指把一些东西分离,不是一个整体,如:We are separated into 4 groups.〔我们被分为4组.(因为我们每个人都是一个单独的个体,所以不能算作整体.)〕

4. an organization for recycling clothes一个循环利用衣服的组织

5. collect old clothes from all over the country从全国各地收集旧衣服

6. some…, some…, and others… . 一些…, 一些…, 还有一些…。(固定句型)

another, other, others和the others

a) another 通常用于指三者或三者以上, “下一个的,另一个的”.

This pair of shoes is too short for me, and I want to try another one.

但是若其后有数词或 few 修饰时,则也可接复数名词。如:

We need another few chairs. In another two weeks it'll be finished.

b) other 指剩下的一部分,相当于some,

Some people are playing on the playground, other people are playing chess under the tree

一些人在操场上玩,还有一部分人在树下下棋

other之前常用定冠词the.一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other. one…the other

I have two cats, one is black and the other is white.

There are only two books left. But I don’t like this one. Will you please show me the other?

(3) 泛指别的人或物时,用others。 当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时候,也用others.

others 和some对比使用时, 是“有些”的意思而不是做“其他”讲, some…others

Some cleaned the windows, others mopped the floor. 有的擦窗户, 有的擦地板。

c) the others 是“其余的”意思, 表示在一个范围内的其他全部,

He is cleverer than the others [the other students] in her class.

There are thirty students in our class. Twenty are girls. The other students are boys.

Some of the pencils are red. The others are green.

(4) some…, some…, and others… . 一些…, 一些…, 还有一些…。(固定句型)

Some people enjoy reading in their spare time, some enjoy riding, and others enjoy staying at home.

7. be given to the poor 给贫困的人

8. be sent to factories for recycling送到工厂进行循环利用 send … to 把……送给……

9. have many laws to protect the environment 有许多保护环境的法律

10. be not allowed to cut down trees 不允许砍树

allow v. 允许,准许 I’m afraid we don’t allow people to bring dogs into this restaurant.

allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 sb. be allowed to do (被动)

allow doing We do not allow smoking in the hall.

cut down 砍到 cut down trees吹倒树木

11. will be punished 会被惩罚 punishment n. 惩罚

12. drop litter in a public place 在公开场合丢垃圾

13. be fined by the police 被警察罚款

fine 作动词 fine sb. for sth./ doing sth. He was fined 50 pounds for driving without lights.

作名词 罚款 You’ll get a fine if you park your car here.

14. laws to limit air and water pollution 控制空气和水污染的法律

limit n. 限度,限制 He was fined for exceeding the speed limit.

界限,范围 Lorries are not allowed within a two- mile limit of the town centre.

v. 限制,限定 I’m limiting myself to one cup of coffee one day.

15. Nature is our greatest treasure. 自然是我们最大的宝藏。

16. depend on its rich resources to live 依靠它丰富的资源生存

depend v. 视情况而定 – Can you lend me some money? – That depends. How much do you want?

depend on/upon 依靠;取决于 They depend on donations from the public.

17. use energy from the sun 利用太阳能 18.new types of energy新型能源

19. cost very little 花费很少

20. run out 用光

run out (of sth.) 用完;耗尽 We’ve run out of coffee. Time is running out. My passport runs out next month.

21. produce little pollution 少产生点污染

produce v. 大量生产,制造 The factory produced 20 000 cars a year.

种植,出产 This area produces most of the country’s wheat.

22. What have you done for the environment? 你为环境做了什么?

23. do something to make a difference 采取措施发挥作用

make a difference 对…有影响;起作用 Marriage made a big difference to her life.

make no difference 对…没影响;无足轻重 It makes no difference to us if the baby is a girl or a boy.

make a difference (to sb /sth ) 对—有影响,起作用

Grammar

1. be used up被用完 2.be invited to the show 被邀请参观展览

3. What will be discussed at the show? 展览上将会讨论什么? 4.one of the biggest problems最大的问题之一

5. throw rubbish into..把垃圾扔进…… 6.be filled with/be full of 充满

7. in the future 将来 8.clean up打扫干净

9. act to improve the environment 行动起来改善环境

act v. 做事,行动 The doctor had to act quickly to save the child.

表现 Stop acting like a child!

扮演,表演 I acted in a play at school..

10. living things生物

(1) living意为“活着的、有生命的”,主要用于作前置定语及冠词the之后,表示一类人,也可用作表语,可修饰人或物。

a living plant——活的植物

The living will go on with the work of the dead. 活着的人将继续死者的工作。

all living things——所有生物

the living——在世者,活着的人们

Latin is not a living language. 拉丁语不是现代使用的语言。

He is still living at the age of 95. 95岁了他还活着。

2) lovely意为“可爱的”“美好的”。如: a lovely day, a lovely girl

3) alive意为“活着的、有活力的”,是表语形容词,可修饰人或物;在句中做表语宾补或后置定语,不能用作前置定语。

He was alive when he was taken to the hospital. 他被送往医院时还活着。

Although he is old, he is still very much alive. 虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。

The fish is still alive/living. 那条鱼还活着。

Keep him alive, please. 请让他活下去吧。

He is the only man alive in the accident. 他是事故中唯一活着的人。

Those alive will gather here. 活着的人将在此相聚。

4) live [laiv]

(1) (动、植物)“活的”“有生命的”“活生生的”,主要用来说鸟或其他动物,作前置定语;如:a live fish——一条活鱼

a live tiger——一只活老虎

(2) 实况的、现场直播的。如:a live report——现场报道;a live show/broadcast/TV program——现场转播的表演/实况广播/现场直播的电视节目

5) lively意为活泼的、有生气的、生动的。 “生动的”可用作表语、定语,指人或物。如:

a lively child——活泼的孩子 a lively description——生动的描述 a lively mind——活跃的头脑;

a lively discussion——热烈的讨论; a way of making one's classes lively——使课堂生动的方法

He told a lively story about his life in Africa.他讲述了一个有关他的非洲生活的生动故事。

Young children are usually lively. 年轻人通常很活泼。

11. we will have a chance to talk about… 我们将有机会谈论……

12. make the world a better place 把世界变成一个更美好的地方

Integrated skills

1. turn off the tap when brushing teeth 刷牙时关上水龙头

2. take showers for less than ten minutes 洗澡少于十分钟

3. use both sides of the paper 用尽纸张的两面 4. recycle empty bottles循环利用空瓶子

4. do a survey做个调查

5. ask sb. about sth. 向某人询问有关……的事 sb. be asked about sth.(被动)

6. Here are the results of the survey.以下是调查的结果。

7. do a lot to help protect the environment

8. try our best to do 尽我们的所能去做

9. look nicer with more trees around 周围有很多树看起来更美

10. reduce dust and help keep the air clean减少灰尘和保持空气干净

11. be harmful to our health =do harm to our health 对我们的健康有害

harmful adj. 有害的 Traffic fumes are harmful to the environment.

harm v. 损害,伤害 Too much sun can harm your skin.

n. 伤害, 损害 These berries didn’t do him any harm.

Air pollution is harmful to our health.

= Air pollution does harm to our health.

be harmed by … 被……伤害

12. keep soil in place 保持水土 in place 在正确位置

Study skills

1. natural resources 自然资源 2. have a wider use有更广泛的用途

2. be dug up from the ground 从地下挖掘出来 dig – dug digging

The children are busy digging in the sand.

dig sth. up 挖掘出;探究 They were digging up potatoes.

Task

1. change for the worse 变得更糟 change for the better/ worse 变好/ 变化

for a change 变化一下,变变花样 I usually ride to work, but today I decided to work for a change.

make a change 使不同于以往; 换个口味

2. take steps 采取措施 take steps to do sth =take action to do sth采取措施干某事

3. We should also reuse water if possible 如果可能的话我们也应该重复使用水。

4. in order to save water 为了节约水

5. turn off the power关闭电源

6. be in use正在使用

7. plastic bags塑料袋

8. Recycling is also a good way to help reduce pollution. 循环利用也是一种帮助减少污染的好办法。

9. separate waste into different groups把垃圾分成几类

10. develop a green lifestyle 养成绿色(环保)的生活方式

11. do more exercise多做锻炼

12. watch less TV 少看电视

13. follow these small steps按照这几步走

14. make a big difference to the earth 对地球产生大的影响

三. 词形变化

1. dig-dug-dug-digging 2. wise-wisely serious-seriously

3. punish-punishes 4. cut-cut-cut-cutting run-ran-run-running

5. different-difference 6. pollute-pollution

7. live-living 8. harm-harmful

9. care-careful-careless-carefully-carelessly 10. simple-simpler-simplest